14 Quantum Cryptic

June 28th, 2010 by

This continuing confusion about the nature of light, and the ambiguous nature of the compromise called ‘duality’ has permitted some interesting new proposals in the quantum field.

Quantum cryptography is based crucially upon the conclusion that a single emission can be detected only once, and that in that detection it is destroyed. This, in principle, enables a secure cryptographic key to be established, as we can base that key on the photons that avoid interception and are therefore entirely unknown to the eavesdropper. The potential problem for this nascent technology is that it depends on two conclusions, neither of them properly established. Read the rest of this entry »

13 Wave

June 21st, 2010 by

To quote from Max Jammer’s ‘The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics’, Erwin Schrödinger consistently ‘interpreted quantum theory as a simple classical theory of waves.  In his view, physical reality consists of waves and waves only.  He denied categorically the existence of discrete energy levels and quantum jumps, on the grounds that in wave mechanics the discrete eigenvalues are eigenfrequencies of waves rather than energies’[i].

Physically, Schrödinger is simply saying that, for example, standing waves require a whole number of wavelengths, or in some situations half wavelengths, that these could provide the discrete energy levels of atoms and, from that, the specific frequencies of emission observed. Schrödinger was meticulously cautious and precise in his criticisms of the Copenhagen Interpretation, and its quasi-corpuscular basis.[ii]

Schrödinger went into this in considerable detail. Read the rest of this entry »

12 Timeline and Consequence

June 14th, 2010 by

The analysis in which we have been engaged produces results that run directly counter to the core discoveries of physics in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Yet the analysis, after a decade of reading and research and discussions and arguments and presentations, appears sound. Where possible, quotes from the great names of physics have been included to back up points made. Most of what is presented in these pages was discovered independently, but not first.

What is more, the reader can verify most of what has been said and argued and quoted. These arguments, unlike those of modern theoretical physics, are within the ken of all rational, scientifically interested readers. In this book it has been a priority to reason cautiously and incrementally, with references where available, so as to convince any open-minded physicist to give the ideas a fair hearing and to check these claims for him or herself. Read the rest of this entry »

11 Maxwell’s aether

June 7th, 2010 by

While there are a great many problems in modern physics, it is only useful to highlight them if we are to attempt to do better, and this is our task over the next few chapters. We will find Maxwell’s work on electromagnetism a useful place to start. We have already exposed the problems in his analysis, and we will attempt to clarify these further and then be exceptionally bold in daring to suggest some minor ‘corrections’ to his reasoning, with major implications.

In the wake of Maxwell’s failure, there were attempts to incorporate his rotational arguments into a solid or jelly-like aether. These failed, and so we will hope to do better by looking at it from the other perspective, that of a fluidic medium. Read the rest of this entry »

10 Science and Mathematics

June 7th, 2010 by

Mathematics is an essential tool of science. When Mendel found in his controlled experiments that key characteristics of peas occurred in small integer ratios, he was certain that inheritance was carried by genes and that these existed in pairs. Carbon dating of the rocks on the Atlantic Ocean bed confirmed the sea-floor spreading of Wegener, and coupled with measurements of their magnetisation tell us the timing of reversals in the Earth’s magnetic field. In engineering we ‘construct’ and test aircraft engines, the Severn Bridge and the airflow over a racing car in the form of equations before we attempt the real thing.

In physics we find mathematics used to a much greater extent than in biology, chemistry or the Earth sciences, and often in a wholly new way.

Modern physics has inherited from Newton an equation for gravitational attraction that applies ‘hypothesis non fingo’[i], without a physical explanation or hypothesis. Maxwell’s equations are all that survives of his Herculean efforts to give a physical explanation to magnetism and light. By 1900, physics had become used to the idea that it must accept mathematical models of the World in lieu of physical description. Read the rest of this entry »

9 The fall of physics: quantum theory

May 4th, 2010 by

Of the two ‘great theories’ of twentieth century physics, quantum mechanics is known as the more mysterious, the more impenetrable to rational, deterministic analysis, a strange and bizarre theory that requires a complete rethink of scientific method and principle. We will not find any of this to be the case.

Einstein said of quantum mechanics that ‘One ought really to be ashamed of the successes, as they are obtained with the help of the Jesuitic rule: “One hand must not know what the other does”’[i]

Later, in 1951, he wrote to his friend Besso: ‘What are light quanta?  Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken.’ Read the rest of this entry »

8 The fall of physics: gravitational theory

April 19th, 2010 by

After false starts in 1911 and 1914, Einstein in 1915 rushed out a short paper giving him priority over Hilbert on the highly mathematical ‘general relativity’, and expanded on it in the following year[i]. Minkowski[ii] in 1909 had identified that a relativity theory required a relativistic approach to measurements, encapsulated in a ‘metric’, and general relativity provided a metrical structure for gravitational phenomena based upon a highly generalised mathematical form created for multi-dimensional topology by Bernhard Riemann. It is the detail of a metric that determines whether or not it will work, and this was provided by Karl Schwarzschild in a letter to Einstein in December 1915.

A key point is that this theory, while metrical, is not relativistic in the sense emphasised earlier by Einstein and Poincaré. Kenyon (1990), in a much-used textbook, put it as follows: Read the rest of this entry »

7 The fall of physics: the principle of relativity

April 12th, 2010 by

After 1900, physics went one way and the rest of science went another. Biology and the earth sciences continued to reason mechanistically. Today, we know far more about the processes that create and affect life, and the planet we live on, than we could ever have dreamed of even a hundred years ago. In these disciplines, when we create new models, when we interrogate ideas, when we decide what to designate as understanding, our analysis is determinedly deterministic.

The incredible intellectual successes of plate tectonics, evolution and the means of inheritance are avowedly all about the mechanism rather than the mathematics. In physics, it is quite the other way about. Newton’s gravitational force still Read the rest of this entry »

6 Michelson

April 5th, 2010 by

Despite the theoretically problematic nature of the aether, it was still assumed to be there, that no other satisfactory explanation was available, even in principle. Hence Albert Abraham Michelson set out, in the years following Maxwell’s 1873 Treatise, to find out more about it.

Michelson reasoned that if there was an aether then the Earth must be moving through it. It was generally considered that Maxwell had shown that light was a wave in this medium, moving, as do other known waves, at a speed dictated by properties of that medium. This clearly suggested that the speed of light calculated by Maxwell was the speed relative to that medium, and Michelson reasoned that its velocity relative to his laboratory would differ from this due to the orbit and rotation of the Earth. Read the rest of this entry »

5 Maxwell

March 30th, 2010 by

James Clerk Maxwell was able to create the definitive mathematical model for electromagnetism only because he thought of the problem mechanically, a fact that is all but lost today. Maxwell felt that electromagnetic phenomena were events that take place in a background medium. Towards the start of his famous ‘Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism’, he wrote Read the rest of this entry »